Welcome to the Topic “What is the best way to protect against inflation?”
Since the beginning of this decade, the consumer price index (CPI) and the producer price index (PPI) have steadily increased. As a result, many investors are concerned about the potential impact that inflation could have on their capacity to achieve their objectives in the future. You may be able to do certain things to decrease the sting of its effects without having to make significant adjustments to your portfolio.
1. Consider adding some inflation-resistant diversifiers
Investors with a well-diversified portfolio of traditional stocks and bonds may already have some degree of protection against the rise in inflation, as portfolios such as these have historically tended to grow even in periods of high inflation. Although the rise in inflation may be concerning, investors with a well-diversified portfolio of traditional stocks and bonds may already have some degree of protection against the rise in inflation. According to Naveen Malwal, an institutional portfolio manager with Strategic Advisers, LLC, “We still feel that a mix of equities and bonds can help investors enjoy growth while controlling risk.” [Citation needed] [Citation needed]
Strategic Advisers, LLC has emphasized specific investments with a history of doing well in inflationary settings and has taken specific actions inside client accounts to provide further inflation protection. These actions help provide additional protection. This has included the addition of varied commodities, such as energy, industrial metals, precious metals, and agricultural products, in addition to real estate equities and overseas companies.
Malwal observes that high-yield bonds are receiving growing attention in the bond market. Even though these pose a larger risk than investment-grade debt, the higher return may make it possible for them to more readily survive any increases in interest rates that might arise as a response to rising inflation. In addition, he emphasized the importance of having a bigger exposure to Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS), which are financial instruments intended to assist in shielding investors from the effects of inflation. Lastly, during times of rising inflation, short-term bonds have historically been subject to less volatility than longer-term bonds. According to Malwal, “We generally have more exposure to short-term bonds than to intermediate-term bonds in client accounts.”
The Director of Wealth Planning at Fidelity Investments, David Peterson, anticipates that rising prices will have a more substantial impact on customers' discretionary spending, as consumers are likely to cut back on items that are not essential. According to Peterson's research, shifts in spending patterns like these have the potential to be a key lever in lessening the effect of inflation. “Consider what's causing inflation,” advises Peterson, “and see if you can adjust what you're spending your money on so that it has less influence.” It may be prudent to put off purchases of consumer products that have been significantly impacted, such as used automobiles and furniture, or even consumables like ham and bacon, all of which have suffered price hikes in the double digits compared to the previous year.
3. Don't get too comfortable in cash
During uncertainty, it's natural to feel the want to pull back from the market and move some of your assets into a cash position. However, resisting this temptation can help you weather the storm. However, keeping cash on hand may not be the best strategy in an economy experiencing inflation. “Because the number in your account seems to remain constant, it gives you a sense of security, ” Malwal explains. However, the longer it remains there, the more likely your purchasing power will decrease.” Taking money out of the market can also significantly impact its performance over the long term. Historically, a reduction in wealth of up to 55 percent can be attributed to missing out on the market's ten best days over four decades. According to Malwal, “Investors willing to take on even a small amount of risk will typically have a higher chance of at least keeping up with, if not passing, the rate of inflation.”
4. Reassess your emergency fund
However, to compensate for the higher cost of living that accompanies inflation, some investors may find it prudent to maintain a larger liquid asset balance within their emergency savings account. “Although it may not be prudent to keep a large portion of one's investable assets in cash, as Peterson points out, it is critical to be ready for any short-term liquidity need. Since prices are rising, you should consider putting more money into your emergency fund to help ensure that you can handle the costs of any unforeseen expenses that may come up in the future.”
You should put away enough money to cover your costs for three to six months' worth of living expenditures. If you haven't done the math to figure out how much your day-to-day costs amount to, your emergency fund could not be ready for you when you need it the most.
5. Watch out for estate tax liabilities
According to Peterson, “there have been significant increases in home values in some markets,” and “depending on where you live, the increased value of your home could put you over the estate or inheritance tax exemption for your state.” In other words, home values have increased significantly in some markets. The median home price in 11 top 50 metropolitan regions in the United Jurisdictions is now greater than $500,000. Furthermore, some states impose taxes on estates with values as low as $1 million. 2
According to Peterson, “it's crucial to remember that your house is an asset,” so keep that in mind at all times. Because you don't price it every day, it's possible that it's not at the forefront of your thoughts. However, it might put your family in danger of paying a hefty tax bill when it's time for you to pass on your estate. To gain incremental growth out of their estate, investors who suddenly find themselves at risk due to higher house values may seek estate tax reduction or “freeze” techniques, such as maximizing their annual gift exemption or transferring assets into a trust.
6. Reduce your tax drag
According to Peterson, “one of the key things that drive down portfolio performance is taxes.” Put another way, “the better off you will be,” the more tax-efficient you are. Take advantage of market volatility for tax-loss harvesting and properly locate tax-inefficient investments in the appropriate tax-deferred or tax-exempt accounts. You may be able to potentially lower your overall tax bill, which can help offset the impact of inflation. This is accomplished by taking advantage of market volatility to engage in tax-loss harvesting.
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What are some legitimate methods that one can earn money working from home on a part-time basis? This is the question I posed to myself when I was ready to shift away from my 9 to 5 job and four months pregnant with my second kid.
I went online to hunt for some of the best opportunities to earn money from home on the side, but I was unable to discover anything. There was a multitude of cons operating in the world. The majority of the chances appeared to be too good to be true, and they actually were.
While I was still looking, I came to the conclusion that there was nothing available, so I made the decision to reach out to people who were actually making money from home (so I could verify that it was genuine), and I interviewed them, documented everything, and created this website to share their experiences with other people who are looking for genuine ideas to earn money from home on a part-time basis like I was.
1. Complete Online Surveys
Feedback enables businesses to better cater their offerings to meet the needs and interests of their customers. Paying people to answer survey questions is one of the easiest ways to make money online while sitting in the comfort of your own home. Businesses pay people to obtain information. Paid surveys from various businesses are available on several websites, including Swagbucks, Branded Surveys, MyPoints, and LifePoints. The vast majority of the time, money is given out using either PayPal or gift cards.
2. Sell Your Favorite Stock Images
Do you have a natural talent for photography? You can turn your hobby into a side business and bring in passive revenue from your favourite images. You can earn royalties by uploading each shot to stock photo websites such as iStockPhotos, Dreamstime, Shutterstock, and Getty Images. You might earn anything from $0.25 to $0.45 for every photo that is purchased. If you regularly add images to your online portfolio, you may find that you earn more money over time.
3. Become a Virtual Assistant
As internet enterprises grow, so does the demand for additional assistance. Offering your abilities to those who need them is one way to increase your chances of making money online. Tasks could involve things like uploading photographs to e-commerce websites, scheduling appointments, or making phone calls. Depending on your level of expertise, the remuneration for these positions might range anywhere from $7 to $40 per hour.
4. Earn Money Off Your Reviews
Reviews are becoming increasingly crucial in our digital age, and they play a significant part in a company's success. In order for companies to advance their operations, they frequently pay customers to provide feedback in exchange for the money. It is possible to find businesses that will pay you to test out their product or service or will provide you discounts in exchange for reviews of purchases you have made. For example, Fabletics will award you additional bonus points whenever you post a review on their website. These points can be accumulated into a credit that can be used toward future purchases.
5. Sell Household Items on eBay or Amazon.
One of the best ways to make money while you are at home is to sell unused stuff lying about the house. For instance, if you have a couch or organised bins in your home that you no longer use, you may consider selling them. Create an account on eBay or Amazon, take pictures of the items you want to sell, and upload the pictures on those websites. You should list each item with the pricing that is most convenient for you.
6. Rent Your Gadgets by the Hour
It is anticipated that more than 57 million tonnes of electronic garbage will be created in the year 2021. You might generate money from the comfort of your home by lending out electronic devices you don't use, which would also benefit the environment. Websites such as Aarons, Rent-A-Center, and Flexshopper seek out individuals interested in renting out various things. To generate additional cash on a monthly basis, all you have to do is fill out your profile, offer your products for rent, and promote your rentals.
7. Enter Data Online
Those who are looking for legitimate work that can be done from home might look into data entry as an option. A medical office probably won't be able to add new client papers to the database every single day because they won't have enough time. To be of assistance, you might contribute data to various internet platforms in your spare time and get paid on an hourly basis. The hourly wage can range anywhere from $10 to $30, although the majority of the time, it falls somewhere in that range.
8. Sell Your Unused Clothes Online
You can make some money by selling your items on websites such as Poshmark, thredUP, or The RealReal. You can make enough money by cleaning out your closet at the end of each season to either add to your savings or purchase a few new items. Start by photographing the items you no longer need and posting them online to get an estimate of how much money you could get from selling them.
9. Create and Sell Printables
Do you have an eye for design? Are you good at organising things? You could sell printables by creating an account on Etsy or by building your own digital website with e-commerce capabilities. Selling digital products is a fantastic method to generate a passive income from the comfort of your own home. To earn money while you sleep, all that is required of you is an initial investment of time to develop and submit your best pieces. It is important to remember that to make the product; you might be required to pay for a subscription to an illustrator, your website, or an Etsy company account.
10. Become a Product Tester
Explore several products in order to earn money quickly and easily online. In the usual course of events, fresh innovations are put through an extensive testing process. During these stages of testing, every flaw is identified and fixed before the product is offered to paying customers. The majority of the time, brands will compensate you for testing out their newest offerings. Some other platforms, including Toluna, Nielsen, Vindale Research, and Pinecone Research, can assist you in finding things to test in exchange for further compensation.
11. Bake (or Meal Prep) for Others
If you have a knack for preparing unique delicacies and enjoy spending time in the kitchen, you could launch a successful business based on your culinary expertise. Taking on custom baking orders for a maximum of 20 hours per week could bring you an additional $200–$400 per month in revenue. Alternately, you might make meal preparations and deliver them to neighbours who either do not want to cook or do not have the time to do so. Some businesses like Snap Kitchen have capitalised on these services, but yours has the potential to be more current and have the feel of a small business.
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You've probably become familiar with the economic concept of inflation from coverage of political and financial events in the news. It's possible that you've also noticed it in your day-to-day life, as the prices of raw materials like lumber, paper, oil, and steel continue to rise. As a result, your dollar doesn't go as far as it used to, whether you're filling up your petrol tank, renovating your home, or shopping for groceries.
What Is Inflation?
Economists assess inflation by comparing price indexes that group and track the cost of specific items. Inflation is the measure of growing costs over some time, and price indexes are how they determine inflation.
The CPI measures how the cost of a “basket” of consumer goods and services paid for by urban consumers changes over time, is one of the most widely used measures of inflation. Several distinct categories, such as housing, transportation, and medical care, are contained inside the basket. The pace of rising of the index was 5.4 percent over just the last year, from June 2020 to June 2021, contributing to the growth of concerns regarding inflation in recent months.
How to Survive the Effects of Inflation
Although it is hard to avoid inflation, there are likely some things you can do to reduce the impact it has on your money.
To begin, it is essential to distinguish between inflation that lasts for a short time and inflation that lasts for a more extended period. Only temporary inflation is frequently attributable to supply and demand difficulties, which drive competition and cause prices to rise briefly. Long-term inflation occurs over an extended period and depends on various causes.
Although preventing either form of inflation is difficult, your approach to coping with each may require different tools. The most effective strategy for mitigating the harmful effects of long-term inflation is to either raise one's income level or engage in financial activities that enable one's wealth to rise at a rate faster than the rate of inflation.
Maintain a Diversified Portfolio of Investments
Having investments and assets that grow in value over time is a terrific method for the average consumer to protect themselves from the adverse effects of inflation. Because inflation typically results in a decline in the value of money, it is essential to position your money so that it will increase over time. If your investments are successful, this will imply that your dollar will ideally grow at a faster rate than inflation.
Suppose you have an investment portfolio and/or a 401(k), individual retirement account (IRA), or another type of retirement account. In that case, you will want to ensure that your investments in those accounts are diversified among stocks, bonds, index funds, and other investment vehicles with varying levels of risk. Different types of investment vehicles include mutual funds. Having a conversation with an investment advisor or a representative of the retirement account offered by your employer can help you guarantee that you have a healthy balance of investments that will ideally beat inflation while reducing the risk you are exposed to.
Finding the correct investments to use as a hedge against inflation will need some research, in addition to your investment portfolio and any retirement accounts you may have. Because of their reputation for maintaining their value over time, many investors consider gold and silver ideal investments. If you have the means, investing in real estate can be a good strategy because inflation causes property values and rents to rise, which benefits homeowners and landlords. However, this only applies if you have the means.
1. Build an Emergency Fund
Up from preparing for the future with investments, one of the most excellent methods to safeguard your financial situation is to ensure that you always have some savings set aside for use in case of an unexpected need. A saving account allocated explicitly for use in unforeseen financial emergencies is known as an emergency fund.
Even though having an emergency fund won't protect you from inflation in and of itself, it can help you prepare for any additional expenses that may arise if transitory price variations cause you to go over your spending plan. For instance, if the price of gasoline suddenly spikes owing to changes in the market, this could throw off your schedule for spending money each month. Having an emergency fund set up ahead of time could provide you with the financial breathing room you require until you can adjust your budget.
You should remember that saving your money in an account that offers some type of appreciation could help you further protect it from having its value decrease. This is especially important if you already have an emergency fund or are considering beginning one. You should consider opening a high-yield savings account, which allows you to get rapid access to your money and offers higher interest rates than those offered by standard savings accounts.
2. Review Your Budget
Because prices of everyday goods will be affected by both short-term and long-term inflation, you need to evaluate your budget frequently to ensure that you correctly account for price shifts that will occur over time.
When you hear that inflation might be driving prices up, you should consider ways to save money in areas such as these if a significant portion of your spending goes toward things like food, gas, and other necessities susceptible to transient price spikes.
3. Reconsider Large Expenses
Suppose you plan significant projects or purchases, such as purchasing a new automobile or renovating your home. In that case, you should think about the potential effects of inflation on the expenses of these endeavors, as well as the likelihood that any price rises will be temporary or permanent.
For instance, the price of timber skyrocketed due to disruptions in the supply chain and other problems brought on by the epidemic; nevertheless, prices are already beginning to fall from their recent record highs. In light of the possibility that the observed cost increases would be just temporary, you might want to delay, for instance, the replacement of your wood flooring until costs stabilize. If there are rumblings that there will be a lack of merchandise in the areas where you want to spend money, you should either take quick action or start setting aside additional cash to cover probable price increases.
4. Ask for a Raise
When inflation is rising, and the value of your dollar is falling, requesting a pay increase may be one strategy that might help you keep up with the rising cost of living. When you boost your income, even if inflation drives up the price of the things you buy daily, you'll have the peace of mind of knowing that you're bringing in more money every month, which will enable you to meet the incrementally higher costs.
Keep in mind that many employers boost pay gradually over time to accommodate for fluctuations in the cost of living. Although requesting a raise is a terrific approach to safeguard your finances, remember that many employers raise compensation gradually over time. Before ordering a raise in pay to account for inflation, you should first consult with your employer because it's possible that your company already has a policy like this in place.
Have any questions regarding the topic “How to Survive Inflation,” feel free to comment below.
It would seem like a dream come true to be able to start a side hustle online and unleash many streams of income. Imagine having more time to spend with friends and family and the freedom to travel wherever you like, all while increasing the amount of money you bring in each month.
What's the best part? Even if you have no experience, the internet offers plenty of opportunities to start earning extra money immediately.
This article will teach you how to generate money online as a novice, even if you don't have any experience or abilities. As long as you have internet, you shouldn't have any problems.
Get involved in market research.
Consumers willing to test websites and digital products and provide feedback on the most recent additions to a company's product lineup are in high demand among businesses. To participate in market research, you do not need to be an expert at utilizing a product or service. Brands frequently look for people who do not know much about their products to acquire their first impressions. For instance, a corporation that makes video games may pay an inexperienced gamer to evaluate how easy it is to pick up and play the game for players of varying skill levels.
You are not required to play through games, though. A plethora of websites pay people to record themselves utilizing a new product or navigating a website in exchange for their time and effort. For instance, UserTesting will pay ten dollars for a screen recording that lasts twenty minutes, while websites such as Swagbucks and Branded Surveys will pay respondents for their participation in surveys.
Become an online tutor
Share your expertise with others. Everyone is knowledgeable about something, whether it be trigonometry, classic literature novels, or Spanish conjunctions. Everyone has something they are informed about. The most encouraging aspect is that you must be only one step ahead of the person you teach to assist them.
As a consequence of this, there are a lot of websites that enable persons from different parts of the planet to market their expertise to pupils.
During the epidemic, this industry has flourished, allowing people an easy opportunity to make money online regardless of how much they know about a particular subject. Whether you teach math, physics, English, or another language, you may offer your skills on websites like TutorMe and Wyzant, which have straightforward sign-up processes and make it possible for you to reach potential students in a number of different countries. If there is a subject in which you are exceptionally well-versed, you can consider producing brief instructional videos or offering private sessions to business owners.
Sell your clothes and other belongings.
Who doesn't have a shirt that's been hanging in the back of their wardrobe for years but has never been worn? It is common to practice selling unneeded stuff such as clothes and other possessions to generate additional income each month and declutter one's home simultaneously.
You can sell your clothes, accessories, and other stuff to customers worldwide by using mobile apps such as Poshmark, Etsy, and Craigslist to create a personal storefront and upload photos of your merchandise. However, this is not only restricted to selling apparel; you may also explore selling furniture, ornaments, and other trinkets on sites like eBay or local selling sites.
Affiliate for your favorite products
The brand gives affiliates of a brand a one-of-a-kind link, and they are eligible to get a commission if someone in their network makes a purchase of a product after clicking on that link. You can sign up for an affiliate marketing program offered by multiple brands, obtain your unique link, and then distribute it to your close contacts and acquaintances. The best thing is that you may earn money by recommending products that you would recommend regardless of whether or not you were paid.
Suppose someone you know or have referred buys a product (it can be any product in Amazon's catalog). In that case, you can claim back a portion of the payment through Amazon's affiliate programme by adding a unique code to a URL. However, individual affiliate programs for different brands and storefronts make it possible for you to become an affiliate for your favorite brands.
You may sell things online using dropshipping, and you won't even have to worry about fulfilling or shipping customer orders yourself. When consumers makes a purchase through your business, an outside manufacturer or supplier is notified of the transaction. That manufacturer or supplier then ships the product straight to the customer.
Building a small business using a concept like e-commerce can be a fruitful endeavor. There is the potential to make a lot of money and earn passive income, but getting started can include a modest learning curve if you don't know anything about setting up your own website or an online store. Despite this, one can make a lot of money and earn passive income.
E-commerce systems such as Shopify, on the other hand, make it extremely simple for even the most inexperienced dropshippers to put up a gorgeous site and begin making sales almost immediately. You can start selling immediately by selecting a pre-made template, dragging-and-dropping information about your business and products, and then connecting with the dropship providers you've chosen.
The ever-increasing popularity of both audio and video content has contributed to the continued high demand for transcription services. Listening to a podcast, video, or audio recording from a YouTube channel and then converting it into a text document is all involved in the transcription process.
You can frequently find part-time internet jobs as a transcriber for businesses in various fields. They will occasionally permit you to work remotely, enabling you to earn money without leaving the comfort of your home
Rent out your stuff
People sometimes don't want to buy a product; instead, they want to rent it for a specific amount of time. This can apply to various products, including lawnmowers, kitchenware, automobiles, and even rooms in your home. Websites such as FriendWithA make it feasible to rent things such as these and then pay the owner for the opportunity to do so.
Why not put a lot of your stuff up for rent if you have a lot of it that you don't use all the time or that other people might be interested in renting out? You can use this opportunity to make some extra cash from things that might otherwise be collecting cobwebs in your storage shed, cabinet, or garage.
You may make some extra money on the weekends by renting out your car when you're not using it or renting out the spare room in your house on a website such as Airbnb. Both of these options are great ways to generate some additional cash.
From playing the lottery online to getting money by filling envelopes at home, many popular ideas keep cropping up about how to make money quickly. Do they work? To be honest, no. Will it result in monetary gain for you? Maybe. However, if you stuck to your 9-to-5 job, you'd most likely increase your income. At the very least, a paycheck is particular in that case.
The reality is that there are legitimate methods to make money online, and millions of individuals are already taking advantage of these opportunities every single day. A wide variety of work-from-home business opportunities are available, ranging from those suited for digital nomads and freelancers to those best suited for seasoned marketers and aspiring business owners.
Let's get this list rolling by beginning with one of the most common and well-known ways to generate money online. According to Google Trends, dropshipping is becoming increasingly popular, evidence of the concept's potential success as a commercial enterprise. There is a lot of proof that dropshipping is a viable way to make money online, such as success stories of how one entrepreneur made $6,667 in eight weeks or how a store owner made six figures selling only one product. Dropshipping has been increasingly popular in recent years.
If you are unfamiliar with the term “drop shipping,” it refers to a method of conducting business in which you sell a product to a client. Still, the supplier is the one who is responsible for storing, packaging, and shipping the product to the buyer on your behalf. You can access millions of products you may add to your store if you use Shopify's dropshipping feature. Some dropshipping apps for Shopify allow you to hand-pick the product images you use, alter the item descriptions, and give your company a more personalized feel. This increases the likelihood that customers will enjoy buying with you.
Try print on demand
Print on demand, also known as POD, is another standard method of making money online. Because it has lesser overhead than other types of enterprises, a lot of people have started their own companies using this model.
Print on demand is comparable to dropshipping in that it frees you from the obligation of maintaining an inventory or personally transporting products to individual customers. However, there are two very minor distinctions between the two. To begin, you can make your bespoke products, which is fantastic for identifying your business. Second, you can select certain products rather than selecting from a wide variety of categories. Most companies that provide print-on-demand services provide simple goods to print on, such as t-shirts, mugs, and tote bags.
What is the most effective method for generating income from your print-on-demand company? Free marketing channels. Your best bet would be to offer free product promotion on social media platforms like Instagram and Pinterest and through social media influencers whose audiences are adept at being converted.
You will be able to form a comprehensive understanding of print-on-demand versus dropshipping by seeing us engage in a lively argument with Wholesale Ted over the benefits and drawbacks of each type of business model.
One of the most common and successful online earning money is through affiliate marketing. Although its level of popularity has waxed and waned over the years, it has remained a reliable means of making money via the internet. The most beneficial aspect of affiliate marketing is the availability of various organizations to form business partnerships. Some examples of such companies are Shopify, Amazon, Uber, and FabFitFun.
Affiliate marketing allows you to make a living by promoting the products of other companies. Promoting retail goods, software, applications, and even more can earn you a commission on sales if you are a skilled marketer and know what you are doing. Remember that you can work as an affiliate for multiple brands, and you can include several different affiliate links in a single blog article.
If you are serious about making money through affiliate marketing on the internet, your best bet is to focus on content marketing. You will have created an asset that is uniquely yours when you have finished populating a blog with numerous pages of high-quality content. Your affiliate links should be strategically placed throughout your blog posts to drive visitors to your affiliate partner's website.
Start a YouTube channel.
If other people are able to profit from YouTube, then you should be able to as well. Jimmy Donaldson, often known as MrBeast, is the most successful YouTuber due to the weird acts that he posts on his channel. In 2021, MrBeast made $54 million through his YouTube channel. Jake Paul, who uploads high-energy prank videos and content related to boxing, is another great earner on YouTube. He has made $45 million from his videos. Beyond what he made on YouTube, he was able to capitalize on his popularity and make additional money online because of his celebrity gained from boxing and YouTube.
You need zero in on a particular subfield of interest to attract a sizable and devoted following to your YouTube channel. You may, for instance, produce cosmetics lessons, broadcast video games, review items, teach skills, create spoof films, or any other type of content that you believe would appeal to an audience.
To get more people to watch your videos, come up with catchy headlines and include relevant keywords in the descriptions. This will help optimize your channel for YouTube search. When you hit the milestone of 1,000 subscribers, you will be able to formally monetize your channel through the use of YouTube advertisements.
Become an influencer
Creating a name for yourself online might also help you earn money in the long run. Did you know that on average, the famous soccer player Cristiano Ronaldo costs $880,259 and $1 million for a sponsored Instagram post? Remember that even influencers on a smaller scale can make more money today than just a few years ago, even though reality TV stars, musicians, and athletes may be the most influential people in this industry.
To become an influencer, you must first cultivate a sizeable audience for your content. Which are the most effective beginning platforms? Instagram and TikTok. These platforms have frequently served as the launch pad for the careers of some of the most influential people in the world who are not celebrities. If you want to attract a sizable number of followers on Instagram, you should probably familiarise yourself with the best strategies.
You can generate income as an influencer in a number of ways: by charging for sponsored posts; by opening your own online store and selling products; by including affiliate links in your bio; by selling your photographs; by selling advertising space on your own podcast; by creating and selling merch; by getting paid to appear at events; and so on.